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Jack Ruby

Interesting facts that connect Jack Ruby to the assassination of John F. Kennedy: 1/ Jack Ruby worked for Richard Nixon in the 1940's. He was the ideal "patriot" because, in May, 1943, Jack Ruby, was called up into the armed services. He served in the United States Army Air Forces at various airbases in America. 2/ Charles Harrelson was a contract killer who worked as a hitman for Jack Ruby, and on November 22nd, 1963, he was arrested along with Watergate Burglars, Frank Sturgis and Howard Hunt.

Jack Ruby murders Lee Harvey Oswald. The astonishing degree of control that Hoover exercised over the Warren Commission gave him the capacity to dictate the "truth" about the assassination of John F. Kennedy. The "infallible" Director of the FBI even managed to convince the Warren Commission to keep from publishing the fact that Jack Ruby had been an FBI informant in 1959. Imagine that! Jack Ruby, the organized crime operative who murdered Lee Harvey Oswald had actually developed a secret alliance with Hoover's FBI and Hoover dominated the Warren Commission so absolutely that he managed to hush it up. The secret relationship between Jack Ruby and Hoover's FBI is one of the links in a long chain of events which connects J. Edgar Hoover and the Mafia to the point where it is practically impossible to distinguish one from the other. Indeed, when Hoover fraudulently insisted that there was no significant link between Jack Ruby and organized crime, the absurd claim was obviously self-serving -Hoover desperately denied Ruby's obvious links to organized crime in order to conceal his own covert relationship with the Mafia.

The Mafia owed its very existence to the capacity to corrupt law enforcement officials. Indeed, as long as law enforcement officials like J. Edgar Hoover fraudulently claimed that organized crime did not exist, the Mafia was free to grow and to prosper. Jack Ruby certainly embodied the fact that the Mafia and its violent cohorts were repeatedly provided the opportunity to break the law without consequence. If common criminals and thugs like Jack Ruby were not in jail, it is ultimately due to Warren Report-style deceptions which perverted justice by ignoring the significance of simple facts like Ruby's obvious Mafia connections. Despite Hoover's fraudulent denials, Jack Ruby's relationship with organized crime was the product of a lifelong commitment. Mob justice effectively defined the normal course of Ruby's affairs.

In 1947, Ruby settled in Dallas, where friends like Mafia enforcer Paul Roland Jones helped him consolidate the interests of the mob and corruptible police officers. Jones was a convicted murderer who bragged about his coast to coast syndicate contacts. Since 1947, he and Ruby cultivated friendships with the Dallas Police at the behest of the Mafia, and Jack Ruby's strip clubs proved invaluable in the effort. Ruby reserved the best booze and the best girls for "his boys" and it was only a matter of time before the initial Mafia plan to corrupt the police began to pay dividends. As relationships developed, Ruby became an informant who provided the police with information about low-level vice and narcotics operations, and the Mafia with the opportunity to carve out an exclusive, competition-free territory. The "sweetheart" deals that Ruby deliberately cultivated are well documented. Former Dallas County Sheriff Steve Cuthrie indicated that as early as 1947, Jack Ruby was the designated frontman for Chicago mobsters who planned to control gambling and police payoffs.

Luis Kutner, a Chicago attorney and a former staff lawyer for the Kefauver Committee that investigated organized crime in 1950, testified before the Warren Commission and indicated that Jack Ruby was "a syndicate lieutenant who had been sent to Dallas to serve as a liaison for Chicago mobsters."

The fact that Jack Ruby was the payoff man for the Dallas Police is not subject to serious dispute. Ruby had evidently penetrated the payoff-riddled Dallas police, and experts who are well acquainted with the power structure that organized crime develops describe Ruby's links in the following terms:

Most simply think that, say, a gambler exchanges money to the cop in return for protection of his interests. And that's as far as the relationship goes. Really, it goes one step further. The criminal will also give the policeman information about his underworld competitors. The cop goes out and busts them, allowing his illicit source of income to develop nothing less than a 'privileged sanctuary.' With all these other arrests under his belt, the cop compiles a respected reputation while his other relationships grow.

There is nothing about Jack Ruby's life that does not tie him to the world of political corruption and organized crime. The activities of friends like Mafia enforcers Paul Roland Jones and Dave Yaras, certainly illustrated the nature of the influence that Ruby cultivated. In 1931, Jones murdered a state witness in Kansas, received a life sentence, but resumed his criminal career after Governor Husman pardoned him. Ruby associate Dave Yaras, also a well known killer who planned and executed murder contracts for the Mob, shared the habit of murdering witnesses who were in a position to testify against him. Ruby's friends had made a career out of getting away with murder, and that probably summoned the necessary gumption required to execute the boldest assignment imaginable -to murder Lee Harvey Oswald on national television.

The "traceless" assassination of John F. Kennedy was too meticulously planned to believe that the publicly televised murder of Lee Harvey Oswald was anything more than a desperate, last minute improvisation. Oswald was certainly targeted, but the more plausible scenario is that he was supposed to be killed in a scuffle with a Dallas Police Officer who struggled to apprehend Kennedy's alleged assassin. The hunt for Oswald produced a number of close calls where it looked like Oswald, save for unintended consequences, would have been permanently silenced by the Dallas Police. One well publicized incident occurred in the Texas School Book Depository, where Oswald faced the loaded gun of a Dallas Police Officer but was released as soon as the manager of the Book Depository confronted the Officer. The post-assassination hunt for Oswald was relentless. About 30 minutes after the assassination, a police car stopped in front of Oswald's house, and it has been suggested that Assistant D.A. William Alexander, a Right Wing extremist who was in on the arrest of Oswald at the Texas School Book Depository, was stalking the patsy.

Shortly before Oswald was arrested, Alexander and a group of policemen were in the alley behind the theatre, and "it was believed that someone intended to murder Oswald, but was foiled when Oswald didn't run out of the theatre." In the light of the failed plot to silence Lee Harvey Oswald, Jack Ruby, the liaison between the Mafia and the Dallas Police, assumed the task to murder Kennedy's alleged assassin on national television, by default.

According to the Warren Report, Jack Ruby was friendly with about 25-50 policemen. According to reliable sources, Ruby knew more than half of the 1200 men on the Dallas Police. Indeed, out of "the 75 or so policemen who were present when Oswald was killed, at least 40 knew Ruby." And once again, the implicit fact that is ultimately exposed is that the Kennedy assassination cover up was so ruthlessly and violently maintained, that no cost or effort was spared, to keep the truth buried.

When Jack Ruby murdered Oswald, Hoover pompously blamed the media, instead of the corruption that produced Jack Ruby. According to the Warren Report: "The Commission believes that the news media, as well as the police authorities, who failed to impose conditions more in keeping with the orderly process of justice, must share responsibility for the failure of law enforcement which occurred in connection with the death of Oswald"

At the same time, the reputation of J.Edgar Hoover was bathed in infallibility. According to the Warren Report, "concerned that there might be an attempt on Oswald's life, FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover sent a message to Chief Curry on November 22 through Special Agent Manning C. Clements of the FBI's Dallas office, urging that Oswald be afforded the utmost security. Curry does not recall receiving the message."

Despite the rhetoric, Hoover never demonstrated a single concern, besides the absolute zeal to cover up the truth about the assassination of John F. Kennedy. Since the arrest of Jack Ruby, Hoover's obsession to maintain the cover up was so absolute, that Jack Ruby was not even allowed to make a phone-call which was not monitored by the FBI. Indeed, "the FBI was supplying Ruby with small change for use in the phone, to encourage his indiscriminate placement of carefully monitored calls."

Jack Ruby certainly acknowledged the excessive secrecy and the ruthlessness which was dominating events when he said: "Everything pertaining to what's happening has never come to the surface. The world will never know the true facts of what occurred [or] my motive... The people [who] have so much to gain and had such an ulterior motive to put me in the position I am in.. will never let the true facts [be known] to the world." But Mafia ally and patriot Johnny Roselli ultimately exposed the "true facts" when he threw caution to the wind and said, "Ruby was one of our boys. He was ordered by the Mafia to kill Oswald."

The world of Jack Ruby, Hoover's FBI and the Mafia came together in the 1950's when mutual interest over Cuba had made them solid allies. In 1959, when covert, anti-Castro operations were flourishing and gun-running campaigns to arm a popular counter-revolution were supported by Mafia and American intelligence operatives, Jack Ruby travelled to and from Cuba, obviously with State Department approval. The revolution in Cuba had undermined Havana's status as the world capital of organized crime and the Mafia actively pursued its interests by supporting a counter-revolution. Mafia gophers like Jack Ruby did the leg work, Mafia bosses like Carlos Marcello provided unaccountable financial support and FBI agents who illegally engaged the anti-Castro crusade, reported directly to J. Edgar Hoover.

The fact that Ruby's known liaison with the FBI was interlocked by several illegal trips strongly indicates that the covert relationship that Ruby shared with Mafia gunrunners and Hoover's FBI was very significant and involved. Jack Ruby was a contact who embraced the anti-Communist crusade in Cuba, and that certainly made him a highly valued, FBI informant, as long as J. Edgar Hoover was the Director. Hoover claimed that Ruby's liaison with the FBI ended in October of 1959, but that is simply another indication of Hoover's common propensity to deceive. Clearly, anti-Communist informants like Jack Ruby were not casually dismissed. The duration of the relationship between Hoover's FBI and Jack Ruby was determined by the overlap of their intensive anti-Communist interests, not by Hoover's commonplace, fraudulent denials.

Individual FBI agents generally attest to what was evidently a substantial, long-term relationship between Jack Ruby and Hoover's FBI because, in their own words, "no FBI agent would meet a potential informant nine (known) times unless he was getting positive results." Ruby's trips to Cuba continued through to January 1963, and the suggestion that Hoover's FBI abruptly cut-off relations is absurd. Hoover may have exploited the fact that American activity which related to Cuba was primarily covert, illegal and unrecorded, but time has provided the opportunity to unearth obvious lies and to restore the truth.

When it came to the strange relationship between Hoover, the CIA and the Mafia, it is sometimes diffficult to determine who was motivating who. Meyer Lansky wanted to orchestrate a Batista comeback and to recover their lost jobs in Cuba and he used every single political contact he had to convince the CIA that the time was ripe for a Cuban counter-revolution, but his pleas were overwhelmingly ignored. "He tried hard to persuade the CIA agents that he could have Fidel removed, and he told them that he was quite prepared to finance the operation himself. But Meyer got no encouragement from them, and he was very depressed when they said there was no possibility of anyone giving him the go-ahead for such a plan." Eventually, the CIA allegedly grew into Lansky's frame of mind, but the initial enthusiasts were zealous, anti-Communist and pro-gambling crusaders. Lansky initially collected the sympathetic support of relative unknowns like Dana C. Smith, a gambler who "had been with a group of men, including Richard Nixon, who flew from Miami to Havana in the early 1950's."

As Lansky's ideas circulated, they ultimately developed into the so-called CIA/Mafia plots to assassinate Fidel Castro. In the meantime, Meyer Lansky, financial wizard to the Mafia, publicly boasted that the enterprise he represented was bigger than U.S. steel.

Ordinarily, the law usually catches up to people who openly boast about their criminal enterprises. Corrupt law enforcement officials like J. Edgar Hoover however actively protected the interests of valuable allies in the war against Communism and Lansky was essentially immune to criminal prosecution.

Given the will to oppose the Mafia, Hoover's FBI could have easily indicted and convicted Meyer Lansky. Having intercepted intelligence which was substantive enough to unquestionably place "Meyer Lansky in the United States underworld", the FBI was well positioned to prosecute. FBI evidence against Lansky was so detailed and conclusive that taped conversations had actually disclosed the undeniable fact that Lansky was the recipient of money skimmed-off from Las Vegas casinos.

Instead of prosecuting Lansky, Hoover cleverly granted him immunity through the legal footnote: "The evidence uncovered by these wire intercepts was all collected without court authorization and thus is inadmissible in American courts."

Ironically, the very same FBI reports that recorded Lansky's criminal activity simultaneously granted Lansky immunity from prosecution. The double irony of course, is that J. Edgar Hoover, the accomplished con artist who routinely violated the law, used the law to protect the interests of the Mafia.

J. Edgar Hoover further protected Mafia interests when he publicly claimed that Mafia Moguls like Meyer Lansky did not exist. In retrospect, the only logic to denying the obvious isb the fact that Lansky and Hoover were allies in the secret war to destroy Communism in Cuba, and Hoover could simply not expose the Mafia without betraying his own, criminal culpability.

Historians should not ignore the implications of the fact that J. Edgar Hoover and Meyer Lansky were secret allies in the war to destroy Communism. The corruption that these relationships spawned are responsible for criminals like former FBI agent Gordon Liddy, who implicitly exposed the fact that the excuse for not prosecuting Lansky was entirely disingenuous, when he indicated that Hoover's FBI never went by the "book", even though it always created the impression that it did. In Liddy's own words:

The underlying theme in all our courses on law investigation and forensic science was always to appear to go by the "book," the manual of rules and regulations, and to be able to document that appearance. Without being stated in so many words, however, the message to new agents was clear; the Bureau expected us to one primary "do" and one overriding "don't": Do succeed; get the job done. To this end we were always to "dominate the situation" and use our "initiative and resourcefulness."

Clearly, if Hoover had any intention beyond protecting Meyer Lansky, the FBI had more than enough knowledge and resources to "get the job done". But the evident alliance between Lansky, New York gangster, Frank Costello and Hoover goes back to at least the 1930's when Lansky and Costello dominated the illegal off-track betting market and gamblers like Hoover used their services. Seymour Pollock, a former Lansky associate exposed their relationship when he said:

He [Hoover] used to place bets through Billingsley [night club owner] and or Winchell [newspaperman that Hoover could rely upon to spread his propaganda], and he had one or two others. And they were not two dollar bets! They ran into the hundreds and into the thousands.

Pollock raises his voice in obvious disdain over Hoover's transparent gimmick to allow himself to be photographed placing bets at the two dollar booth whenever he went to the track. Louis Rosensteil, a millionaire philanthropist who had links to Costello and Lansky, was also a middleman who placed bets for Hoover. Rosensteil's wife, Susan, described the sweetheart deal that Hoover enjoyed when she said:

Hoover would like to gamble... Hoover would place the bets through Rosensteil. Rosensteil would call the boys up and they would make the bets. And if Hoover won he got paid and if he didn't win they would just forget it.

Is it any wonder that "the boys" never had to worry about Hoover and that they brazenly bragged about their financial conquests? With Hoover on the payroll, there was little need to be cautious, because as long as the Director of the FBI denied their existence and documented their operations for the sake of granting them prosecutorial immunity, the Mafia flourished.

According to well publicized disclosure, the "contract coordinator" of the plot to assassinate Castro was former FBI agent Robert Maheau. Maheau himself certainly sponsors the popular myth. In his own words:

... I recruited mob figures Johnny Roselli and Sam Giancana for an extremely hush-hush CIA plot to assassinate Fidel Castro, his brother Raul, and his closest associate, Che Guevara. Hoover wanted to debrief me about what I might have learned concerning Johnny and Sam's "business ventures." I turned him down flat. The work we did on the CIA plot was classified, and unless the Company instructed me otherwise, I wasn't even going to admit it had happened, let alone blab about conversations that occurred in the course of it. Needless to say, my position did not please Hoover. In fact, he became extremely annoyed.

Who does Maheau think he is kidding? Hoover did not need Maheau to debrief him about Sam Giancana and Johnny Roselli, -he had direct contact. It is J. Edgar Hoover who protected and had the capacity to co-ordinate a joint operation between the Mafia and American intelligence, not Robert Maheau. At any rate, Maheau, who calls himself one of the last people to know the truth about the Castro plots, betrays the fact that while he is willing to promote the popular CIA/Mafia cover story, he will not divulge the truth. In his own words:

There's one thing that I can say for sure about the Bay of Pigs and the plot to assassinate Fidel Castro: I wish to God I'd never been involved in it. It was the right choice at the time... but the wrong choice looking back. Jack Anderson and I and everyone else can sit around all day and come up with theories about what happened. Problem is -we'll never know for sure. The truth is buried in a lot of graves.

Satisfied by his perception that the truth will never come out, Maheau coyly hints about where the truth is buried when he says: "I'm one of the last people left who know what really went on during the operation to assassinate Fidel Castro. A lot of the people involved died pretty suddenly. Maybe just a coincidence... maybe not. Roselli was hit in 1976."

Secure in his capacity to deceive, Maheau evidently believes that the historical record is subject to his evasiveness. But the very same determination to keep the truth buried reflects the ugly, regrettable secrets that Maheau coyly dances around. In retrospect Robert Maheau was absolutely nothing, beyond J. Edgar Hoover's gopher. The well publicized claim that he was Hughes' right hand man was simply a cover to conceal the fact that the real force behind Howard Hughes was J. Edgar Hoover and the Mafia. Clearly, without their cooperation Howard Hughes would not have been able to "take over" Las Vegas. In the final analysis, it wasn't a takeover, just a smooth transfer of funds which gave the intelligence community a better cover through the mysterious Howard Hughes. In the process, Robert Maheau was nothing but a "foot soldier." As an agent in Hoover's FBI, Maheau developed admiration for the complex world of lies and deceit because the "patriots" who played the game "believed in something" and "no matter what it was", Maheau found that to be "refreshing". Maheau's description of the strange world that Hoover's FBI introduced him to reflects the environment that conditioned him. In his own words:

The clandestine world of double and triple agents is a landscape where lies are so complex that truth disappears, shrouded in a fog of vague motives and uncertain loyalties. It is a place without honour, without morality, without trust.

The so-called CIA/Mafia plots were never supposed to be disclosed, they were supposed to forever lie in the sort of environment that Maheau found intriguing -where truth disappears. And so, the question that needs to be examined is why were they ever exposed? And the answer leads directly to the person in the best position to expose the truth -the one and only J. Edgar Hoover. It is Hoover who used allegations about Castro assassination plots to protect the Mafia from imminent prosecution in 1962 and to divert attention away from the truth about the Kennedy assassination in 1967.

The plot to use the Mafia to assassinate Castro was brought to the attention of Robert Kennedy in the context that the so-called liaison between the CIA and the Mafia had terminated. Allegedly hatched by the Eisenhower administration, the question of who initially authorized plans to murder Castro has yet to be disclosed, but given all the available evidence to date, J. Edgar Hoover, Richard Nixon and the Mafia are evidently primary architects. The plot to murder Castro was an integral part of the Bay of Pigs operation, and speaking about the invasion project in 1964, Nixon said, "I had been the strongest and most persistent advocate for setting up and supporting such a program."

Philip Bonsal, American ambassador to Cuba in 1959 called Nixon the "father of the operation". According to Howard Hunt, Brigadier General Robert Cushman told him that Nixon was "the project's action officer in the White House". Indeed, Richard Nixon was so heavily involved in plans to murder leftists in Cuba that he had even selected Castro's successor, Mario Kohly Jr., the son of a right-wing Cuban exile. Richard Nixon and the elder Kohly had evidently agreed to plan "for the elimination of Miro Cardona and all the leftist Cuban Revolutionary Front leaders in order that Kohly could immediately take over the reigns of power in Cuba, once a successful invasion of exiles being trained by the CIA had been accomplished... [Manuel] Artime [commander of the Cuban Brigade] and his followers were to be assassinated by [Kohly's] forces once a successful landing had been accomplished."

When Lyndon Johnson wanted to divert attention away from the truth about the Kennedy assassination, he promoted the sensational allegation that John F. Kennedy was running a "murder incorporated in the Caribbean", but the evidence clearly proves that J. Edgar Hoover and Richard Nixon, were actually in charge of that department and Johnson was covering up for them.

Richard Nixon confirmed his bizarre relationship with the Kohlys. When the elder Kohly was indicted and convicted for conspiring to counterfeit Cuban pesos, Nixon wrote to Judge Weinfeld and asked him to suspend or reduce his sentence on the grounds that "the patriotism, courage and energy of the exiles in attempting to mount a counterrevolution have been in the past, and may in the future again be regarded as advantageous to the interests of the United States."

Richard Nixon was obviously in the habit of using Cuban exiles to advance his interests. On June 17, 1972, five men, including Cuban exiles, were arrested for breaking into the Watergate office building headquarters of the Democratic Party's national committee.

Richard Nixon's meddlesome, "national security" operations betray an uninterrupted, 35 year-long history of covert operations. Cronies like former FBI/CIA personnel Gordon Liddy and Howard Hunt, were certainly prepared to violate every known law, in the name of the national security. Half a century of deception leaves a lot that needs to be unravelled, and one can more or less safely assume that most of the official record is tainted by the pressure to cover up the truth. For example, the disinformation that Hoover deliberately promoted when he highlighted CIA/Mafia involvement made it extremely more difficult to determine the entire truth about the Castro assassination plots. According to public disclosure, Hoover was officially "in the dark", but as early as October 18 1960, Hoover was evidently so well versed about assassination plots against Castro that information flowed from the office of the Director of the FBI, to the CIA and not the other way around. Eisenhower was still the President and Nixon was the Vice President who was heavily involved in planning Bay of Pigs-style plots when J. Edgar Hoover wrote the following memorandum to Richard Bissell of the CIA.

... during recent conversations with several friends, Giancana stated that Fidel Castro was to be done away with very shortly. When doubt was expressed regarding this statement, Giancana reportedly assured those present that Castro's assassination would occur in November. Moreover, he allegedly indicated that he had already met with the assassin-to-be on three occasions... Giancana claimed that everything has been perfected for the Killing of Castro, and that the "assassin" had arranged... to drop a "pill" in some drink or food of Castro's.

J. Edgar Hoover obviously did not need the CIA or Robert Maheau to debrief him about Castro assassination plots. Common interest allies like Richard Nixon and Sam Giancana placed J. Edgar Hoover in a position where he was in on the planning from the very beginning.

Hoover disclosed the so-called CIA/Mafia plots, not because he wished to betray covert operations but because his friends, Sam Giancana and Robert Maheau were subject to criminal prosecution over an illegal wiretap they had planted and J. Edgar Hoover developed a gimmick to grant them immunity. He couldn't very well say that they were engaged in a sensitive operation against Castro through the FBI -that was illegal, so he simply used his CIA contacts to cover up his own, criminal culpability because foreign governments like Cuba were legally, CIA territory.

The first effort to protect his friends from criminal prosecution culminated in the circulation of an FBI memo about the "CIA's clandestine efforts against the Castro government". Robert Kennedy didn't know what Hoover was talking about and asked for a follow-up.

The twin effort to simultaneously prosecute and to immunize Maheau and Giancana reflected the divided nature of the Kennedy Justice Department. On the one hand, Robert Kennedy had declared war against organized crime and on the other, J. Edgar Hoover granted Mafia patriots prosecutorial immunity. In April of 1962, the effort to immunize Hoover's Mafia allies created the impetus to promote vague allegations which suggested that Giancana should be spared prosecution because he was a party to the "CIA's clandestine efforts against the Castro government". Kennedy demanded elaboration and the CIA added that the prosecution of Giancana "would lead to exposure of most sensitive information relating to the abortive Cuban invasion in April 1961."

Vague allegations did not impress Kennedy and the effort to prosecute Giancana persisted. Finally, on May 7, 1962, Lawrence Houston, general counsel to the CIA told Kennedy that the CIA had recruited Giancana to murder Castro and that the Las Vegas prosecution threatened to expose national security secrets. The fact that the government had cooperated with his enemies infuriated and embarrassed Attorney General Robert Kennedy.

It is difficult to unravel the truth about the plots to assassinate Castro, because they were hatched, not by an individual agency like the entire CIA or the entire FBI but by anti-Communist fanatics like J. Edgar Hoover, Richard Nixon, Sam Giancana, Johnny Roselli, Frank Sturgis, Howard Hunt, Robert Maheau and the like. Even John McCone, the Director of the CIA did not know a thing about the CIA/Mafia plots to assassinate Castro until he read about it in the Chicago Sun-Times. The following memo illustrates the comical unfolding of the so-called CIA/Mafia plot to assassinate Castro: Colonel Edwards [Maheau's contact in the CIA] had objected to prosecutions in the Las Vegas case.. .and. . during the FBI investigations of Roselli's role in the matter, the Bureau had found that she [Judith Campbell Exner] had also been having affairs with Sam Giancana and President Kennedy -simultaneously. Hoover had cross-checked the allegation by reviewing the woman's phone records, which showed that calls had been made to the general White House number.

These so-called, CIA/Mafia plots to assassinate Castro were supposed to convince the Kennedys to abandon the effort to prosecute Maheau and Giancana but Kennedys Justice Department continued to kee Sam Giancana under heavy surveillance. Moreover, in light of the fact that the birth of the allegation that Kennedy was having an affair with Judith Campbell is linked to Hoover's fraudulent efforts to secure prosecutorial immunity for his Mafia friends, it is more than likely that the allegations themselves are equally fraudulent.

Judith Campbell is a self-admitted perjurer who was singularly obsessed by the determination to impugn the credibility of her enemies, and there is absolutely no question about the fact that she hated the Kennedys for targeting the Mafia. The self-serving delusions of these "patriots" are astounding. For example, Robert Maheau actually claimed that John F. Kennedy was a certifiable murderer because he refused to use the American military to invade Cuba during the aborted Bay of Pigs invasion. Seeking to enlighten the committee that was investigating intelligence agencies in the 1970's, Maheau proudly acknowledged his ignorance and paranoia when he said, "Senator, I find it difficult to understand all the time and money that is being spent to determine if our country plotted to murder a foreign leader -a murder that never took place -when there is no evidence that any time and money is being spent to turn the spotlight on the murders that in fact did take place." Maheau "enlightened" the committee he "startled" when he said: "The murders I mean were the boys killed during the botched Bay of Pigs invasion." In a further elaboration, Maheau said, "...as our volunteers attempted to land or actually did land on the beaches, they were destroyed by Russian hardware that we should have destroyed according to the plan. And that, gentlemen, is murder."

This nonsense that Maheau promotes is akin to justifying the murder of the beloved, President John F. Kennedy, because, according to Robert Maheau, "Presidents come and go, but the agencies that serve them -be it the FBI, the CIA, the IRS, or any other -continue far beyond any one administration."

Arthur M. Schlesinger succinctly describes the affliction that Maheau evidently suffered when he said:

Intelligence agencies, sealed off by walls of secrecy from the rest of the community, tend to form societies of their own. Prolonged immersion in the self-contained, self-justifying, ultimately hallucinatory world of clandestinity and deception erodes the reality principle. So intelligence operatives, in the CIA as well as the FBI, had begun to see themselves as the appointed guardians of the Republic infinitely more devoted and knowledgeable than transient elected officials, morally authorized to do on their own whatever they believed the nation's security demanded. Let others interfere at their peril.

Given this distorted sense of reality that Maheau and the like shared, the murder of John F. Kennedy was not even considered to be a murder -it was an act motivated out of the need to preserve American institutions. Robert Maheau made his strange mind-set crystal clear when he said: "We cannot destroy our cathedrals just because our stained-glass window might need repair." Accordingly, it was only proper for Kennedy, the "stained-glass window" that needed repair, to be replaced. It would have been difficult not to laugh, had the consequences of their absolute ignorance, been less tragic.

Maheau was a product of the bizarre world that J. Edgar Hoover controlled -a world that directed hostility towards earnest officials who upheld the law, and extended benefit to criminals who supported a perverted vision of the national security. The fact that the Mafia was a direct beneficiary of Hoover's sense of "patriotism" is certainly very clear. In 1958, a report on organized crime was circulated to law enforcement officials within the government, but "the day after they were circulated, J. Edgar Hoover had each copy recalled and destroyed."

Hoover routinely impeded the efforts of his own agents to protect his organized crime interests and made it practically impossible for his agents to successfully prosecute known Mafia bosses.

Like the Mafia, Hoover's major preoccupation related to the task of developing schemes to override legal restraints. For example, secrecy overcame the restrictive legal mandate which forbade Hoover the power to combat communism outside of the United States, Instead of obeying the law, the Director of the FBI secretly installed FBI agents in at least twenty foreign countries. Intelligence-gathering abroad was a CIA responsibility but Hoover's penetration of what was supposed to be CIA territory, was boundless.

The pursuit of disorganized hillbilly gangsters like Pretty Boy Floyd established Hoover's reputation as a relentless crimebuster and he maintained the image through the Crime Records Division of the FBI. The Division was simply a publishing house that produced crime-fighting books and articles credited to America's so-called top crimebuster, J. Edgar Hoover. The best writers within the FBI worked for the Crime Records Division, and the propaganda effort was honed to the point where FBI agents submitted reviews of their own books to friendly newspapers for publication. According to veteran FBI agent, William Sullivan, the Crime Records Division was a "huge public relations and propaganda operation which no government Bureau should have."

Theoretically, the FBI was the investigative arm of the Justice Department, but as long as Hoover was in charge, the FBI was essentially a private army that combated Communism. Indeed, Hoover was even the investigative force behind Senator Joseph McCarthy's vulgar crusade. According to William Sullivan: "We were the ones who made the McCarthy hearings possible. We fed McCarthy all the material that he was using".

Sullivan is unequivocal about FBI involvement: "I know what we were doing, I worked on it myself. At the same time, we were telling the public that we had nothing to do with it."

McCarthyite witch-hunts targeted millions of faultless Americans who were victims of illegal FBI intrusion. And while the lives and careers of ordinary American citizens were disrupted, dislocated and destroyed without cause, Hoover fraudulently maintained the image that he was fighting crime. Sanford Ungar, who has meticulously analyzed Hoover's FBI, exposed the charade in the following terms:

For nearly half a century headquarters was run as J. Edgar Hoover's showpiece, his personal 'seat of government' which tended to confuse law enforcement with policymaking. Sometimes consciously and sometimes not, headquarters was the master of the charade. In military fashion, it overstaffed the Bureau's rolls in order to have enough manpower available for when a real crisis occurred. But it never said it was doing that; it justified the overload with artificial "cases" that consisted only of pieces of paper but looked good in the statistics. It created rules to govern everything, rules that were intended more to anticipate and answer criticism than to help agents with their work.

The campaign to promote an infallible image was exhaustive. Indeed, Hoover recruited hand-picked, clean-cut, small-town American boys whose mainstream values inspired uncritical admiration. Trained to be loyal and obedient to J. Edgar Hoover, new recruits were closely watched and monitored to assure compliance. Hoover demanded absolute obedience and even "assumed the right to set standards for his agents' personal lives, and sexual taboos... Not only would young unmarried male and female clerks be dismissed if it were learned that they had illicit sexual relations, but the same punishment would be dealt to a fellow clerk who knew about any such indiscretion and failed to report it."

Hoover essentially established a built-in spy network where every single FBI agent was assigned the responsibility to keep an eye out and to report even the slightest sign of dissent from within. Anyone who refused or failed to adapt to Hoover's excessive demands resigned, was fired or committed suicide, save for the probability that all the hushed up suicide verdicts were more likely the disguised murders of "dissidents."

According to the terms of the peculiar world that J. Edgar Hoover created, every citizen in the United States was either a "true American" or a "Communist". In his own words: "America's emblem is the soaring eagle-not the blind and timid mole. Fear, apologies, defeatism, and cowardice are alien to the thinking of true Americans! As for me, I would rather be dead than red!" Always true to his single-minded obsession to fight "Reds", Hoover enthusiastically cultivated and protected the ruthless, anti-Communist resources that the Mafia offered. According to FBI sources, ruthless murderers like Mafia Crime Boss Carlos Marcello was a "legitimate businessman." According to the FBI field office in New Orleans, he was a simple "tomato salesman." Carlos Marcello was a valued ally in the war against Communism and Hoover did everything in his power to make his existence as comfortable as possible. The resources that J. Edgar Hoover devoted to the task of fighting organized crime illustrates the nature of Hoover's FBI. In 1959, the FBI New York office had over four hundred agents who worked on communism while only four were assigned to organized crime and their responsibility was not to prosecute mobsters but to perform "in-office bookkeeping" chores collating such routine information as the whereabouts of known racketeers.

With allies as powerful as J. Edgar Hoover, the Mafia commonly evaded criminal prosecution. In 1962, Attorney General Robert Kennedy "sent his federal prosecutors a list of gangsters to be investigated, stipulating that the list be held in strict secrecy within the Department of Justice." Despite Kennedy's instructions, a copy of the list turned up in a Michigan Avenue office used by Mafia boss Sam Giancana and his associates.

J. Edgar Hoover, who had joined the Justice Department when he was 22 years old, was the obvious source of the leak. Obsessed with maintaining an absolute level of control, a damaging departmental leak could never escape the notice of J. Edgar Hoover. Indeed, Hoover's entire Justice Department was "wired" with an army of spies and informants, not to mention electronic surveillance. Given the absolute control that Hoover maintained, the leak that landed on Giancana's desk was clearly a direct courtesy from Czar Hoover himself. Under the circumstances another conceivable possibility does not exist. Since 1918, when Hoover controlled the head of the General Intelligence Division of the then Bureau of Investigation, the supreme bureaucrat cultivated an impregnable network that surveyed impropriety to the point where a Justice Department leak was simply a Hoover-directed bulletin. And it is because J. Edgar Hoover is directly responsible for cultivating unfettered Mafia operations that his legacy is exceedingly felonious and sinsiter.

In the 1950's, Hoover actually formed a committee to determine and document the nonexistence of organized crime.

Is it even remotely possible to produce a fraud which is more obvious and more transparent than the paranoid obsession to document something that allegedly does not even exist? J. Edgar Hoover routinely deployed every conceivable tactic to the task of protecting Mafia interests.

When the Justice Department launched an anti-organized crime campaign in the late 1950's, Hoover deliberately thwarted efforts to secure prosecutions. The police arrested 60 mobsters who were meeting at Apalachin in 1957, but "Hoover systematically undermined Justice Department efforts to build criminal prosecutions against the mobsters netted at Apalachin. It was whispered at headquarters that Hoover had deliberately impeded the Justice Department investigation, and in any event agents clearly understood that any failure experienced on that assignment would not jeopardize career prospects."

It is all very obvious in retrospect, but Hoover's relationship with the mob was steeped in absolute secrecy and obscured by the image that "infallible" FBI agents granted. The image-conscious Director kept his loyal, tarnish-free agents on a tight leash, and frequent transfers made it more difficult for them to unravel his secrets. Indeed, by discouraging comprehensive, long-term criminal investigations, Hoover effectively transferred the responsibility to combat crime away from the individual, resourceful FBI agent and towards FBI Headquarters. Despite the roadblocks, Hoover's alliance with the mob did not entirely escape the notice of individual FBI agents who noted that Hoover would sometimes travel to Manhatten, where he would meet mobster Frank Costello in Central Park.When we assess the vein that corruption spawns, Kennedy assassination controversy is due to excessive censorship, distortion and outright fraud. Despite deceit and the zeal to distort the Kennedy record, history survives tyrants and the monolithic societies they seek to create. J. Edgar Hoover was ultimately betrayed because history legitimizes individual initiative and rejects mob rule. Despite J. Edgar Hoover, the resourceful efforts of individual FBI agents discovered and exposed the existence of organized crime. In 1959, the eavesdropping of young, enthusiastic FBI agents who were not corrupted secured a host of information on the criminal activity of Chicago Mafia Boss Sam Giancana. The installation of a microphone at a tailor's shop gave the FBI concrete facts about Mafia operations. The source of the information, Sam Giancana himself, proved to be extremely authoritative as he blurted out "about a dozen names in different cities across the country."

If Giancana and his violent cohorts evaded criminal prosecution, it is because Hoover did whatever he could to protect Mafia associates who were helping him wage war against Castro. Clearly, as far as Hoover was concerned, Giancana was a friend: Hoover despised the Kennedys. Carlos Marcello embodied the war between the Kennedys and Hoover's Mafia.

In the fall of 1963, the unimpeded rackets of Carlos Marcello, the violent, the anti-Communist zealot who generously funded the effort to oust Castro, were temporarily sidetracked by the need to fight deportation charges initiated by Attorney General Robert Kennedy. Former FBI agent Guy Banister, who was reputed to have maintained contact with Hoover's FBI, was helping Marcello fight the charges. Mary Brengel, a secretary who worked for Banister at the time, discovered this relatively unreported scandal. Brengel's recollection is very definite because she was taking dictation when, in a letter, Banister referred to his efforts to assist Marcello. When Brengel expressed surprise over Banister's collusion with an organized crime boss, Banister said: "There are principles being violated, and if this goes on it could affect every citizen in the United States."

The dangerous "gait" of the self-appointed patriots who marched to the tune of J. Edgar Hoover, is predictably familiar. When Banister died, his wife came across a drawer full of the "Hands off Cuba" leaflets that Oswald, as the entire world promptly learned, had distributed in the streets of New Orleans. When Oswald was arrested, Dallas District Attorney Wade told reporters that Oswald belonged to the "Free Cuba" Committee, but mobster Jack Ruby, posing as a reporter at the very same press conference, promptly corrected Wade and indicated that Oswald belonged to the "Fair Play For Cuba" committee, a bogus New Orleans chapter of the pro-castro organization that contained a single member, Lee Harvey Oswald.

The fact that Lee Harvey Oswald worked out of the office of a Hoover loyalist like Guy Banister clearly betrays the degree to which J. Edgar Hoover controlled Oswald the patsy. Banister was an extremely violent, rabidly anti-Communist zealot who reportedly belonged to the Minutemen, a right wing paramilitary organization that promoted the need to subvert, sabotage and murder Communists. The Minutemen publication On Target summed up his domestic philosophy very succinctly through the warning: "Traitors beware. Even now the cross hairs are on the back of your necks."

In 1962, Banister associate, David Ferrie, a like-minded anti-Communist zealot, was reportedly training exiles in paramilitary tactics at a secret camp across Lake Ponchartrain, at the behest of the CIA.

In 1963, Ferrie worked very closely with both Banister and Marcello, and according to Banister's secretary, Mafia associate Johnny Roselli and former FBI agent Maheau also had dealings with Banister's office in 1963.

Given the nature of the company that surrounded Oswald, the fact that he was a handpicked patsy is not idle speculation. Indeed, J. Edgar Hoover Hoover, Robert Maheau, Guy Banister, David Ferrie, Johnny Roselli and Jack Ruby all extended and expected favours from the mob, they were all heavily involved in efforts to oust Castro, and they all expected prosecutorial immunity because they were "patriots" who allegedly acted in the best interests of the national security of the United States. It takes an extreme stretch of credibility to accept the claim that this cabal of anti-Kennedy fanatics is not responsible for framing Lee Harvey Oswald. Compared to the secret world of Maheau, Banister, Marcello, Hoover and the like, the life of Lee Harvey Oswald is an open book. There is certainly not a single trace of credible evidence which suggests that Lee Harvey Oswald was the crazed subversive that Hoover claimed he was. It is, after all, J. Edgar Hoover who is ultimately responsible for producing frivolous evidence in attempt to frame Oswald. The staged or doctored, universally publicized photograph [reportedly taken by Marina Oswald] that depicts Oswald with rifle and leftist literature reflects scripted imagery without foundation. If Hoover was serious about using photographic evidence to link Oswald to the Kennedy assassination, he could have easily publicized photographs that were directly linked to the murder of John F. Kennedy. Indeed, the available record of photographic evidence was so conclusive that even the sixth floor of the Texas School Book Depository was reportedly captured on film precisely when Oswald was alleged to have shot the President. The photographic evidence alone, much of which was never made public because the FBI reportedly seized film even before it was developed, could have easily been used to conclusively prove the guilt or the innocence of Lee Harvey Oswald. In retrospect, framing Lee Harvey Oswald was typical of the abuse that Hoover commonly practised -there was nothing unusual about it.

The secret alliances that Hoover forged routinely perverted justice and affected the lives of millions of Americans in adverse ways. Between 1947 and 1960 over 10,000 industrial employees were fired because they were branded security risks. At the height of the "red scare" 16,000 men and women were forced out of federal jobs and the FBI was conducting political surveillance on over one million Americans. The total number of Americans who were blacklisted, fired, harassed and likely even murdered as a consequence of anti-Communist witch-hunts runs into the millions and this appalling record of abuse was aided and abetted by "ordinary" Americans who did what they viewed to be their patriotic duty. Hoover's obsessive agenda to convert every single American into a fervent and fearless anti-Communist warmonger who persecuted alleged communist sympathizers reaped sinister benefits. Overzealous anti-Communists like Father Charles Rice, a Trade Unionist leader between 1940 and 1953, worked closely with Hoover's FBI and other Washington allies in the effort to "clear the fouled waters" through waging war against Communism. But while people like Father Rice identified and destroyed the careers of the so-called Communists, they proved nothing beyond their capacity to target and harass ordinary American citizens.

Victims like former Union Official Ted Wright, an active, black union leader who was evidently too un-American for the likes of Father Rice and J. Edgar Hoover, reflects the absurdity of McCarthy-style witch-hunts when he says: "That's nonsense. [the claim that he followed the Communist party line] We didn't follow it. When you're fighting for bread and butter... you're going to fight like hell to get food." The simple, unchallengeable sincerity of Ted Wright is echoed a million times over, by victims all across America. Clearly, the tactics that saw people like Ted Wright blacklisted are vulgar and illegal. Father Rice went to Washington, met a hand-picked group of Mccarthyites in a hotel room, and proceeded to name, label and ultimately blacklist Ted Wright and others in unions all across America.

Treated like heroes by the media, Hoover-style anti-Communist warlords made careers out of bandying phoney allegations which identified the so-called un-Americans. Some, like Senator Joseph McCarthy were publicly exposed and disgraced. Others, more cunning and subtle, rode a wave of hysteria that paved a path to the White House. Indeed, as Hoover privately suggested, if it wasn't for him, Nixon would have never been elected President of the United States. The Director of the FBI was evidently not joking. J. Edgar Hoover is largely responsible for the hysteria-dominated political climate that Nixon successfully exploited, and if Hoover had not "legitimized" the process, Nixon could have sufferd the fate of disgraced Senator Joseph McCarthy and avoided Watergate.

Professional Communist informants like Harvey Matusow reflect the fraudulent foundation which is responsible for making Richard Nixon a national celebrity. According to Matusow, the anti-Communist "source" that warlords like Nixon exploited:

I was really in demand and called for as a witness. I mean we were really having fun. It was a great business, it was a show biz world. It wasn't politics. I used to hang around with Walter Winchell and ride in his cadillac with him as he did police calls, or go to dinner with the columnist Leonard Lyons at Lindy's and he'd introduce me to Senator Humphrey. Or I'd go here and meet J. Edgar Hoover at the Stork club. It was a wild world for a kid who dropped out of high school. Like any hooker on the street... I was not different than a hooker, I was on hire for what you needed, you know, you needed a guy who opened his mouth and talked, I served that function. I was hooked because I suddenly moved into a thirty-two room house in Washington D.C. and had an upstairs maid and a downstairs maid and a butler and a chauffeur. And I had members of the Cabinet and Senators and Ambassadors at my dinner table. And I was a high school drop out from the streets of the Bronx and talking to the power elite of America. Come on, who wouldn't be hooked by that?

Beyond the trade that the "prostitution" of testimony produced, the war against Communism targeted and destroyed innocent people. Frank Wilkinson, the L.A. Housing Authority Executive 1942-1952, was one of an undetermined number of unsuspecting Americans who were in fact assasination targets. Wilkinson worked on a housing project that he hoped would make Los Angeles the first slum-free city in America.

The city of Los Angeles had selected the site of the current L.A. Dodgers stadium to be a massive housing project and Wilkinson was extremely excited over the prospect of providing housing for the poor. Powerful interests opposed the project and anyone associated with it became an instant target.

The FBI invested millions of dollars and created over 132,000 pages of surveillance with the intention of disrupting the work of one man in particular, the relatively obscure, L.A. Housing Authority Executive, Frank Wilkinson. As many as eight FBI agents a day were assigned to follow Frank Wilkinson. As a result of the FBI-embraced witch-hunt, Wilkinson became totally unemployable until he eventually got a job in a privately owned store working as a janitor.

Wilkinson was one of over 500 state and municipal employees who were fired for political reasons between 1947 and 1960.

The obsession to stop Wilkinson reflects the extremely disturbing, violent aptitude of Cold War hysterics like J. Edgar Hoover. The frightening FBI document which relates to the intrusive surveillance of Frank Wilkinson indicates that he was actually the target of an assassination attempt, but the identity of the person who was to kill Wilkinson is blacked out and ultimately protected by J. Edgar Hoover. More disturbingly, when Hoover's FBI recorded the fact that somebody was prepared "to assist in an assassination attempt on Frank Wilkinson," one can reasonably assume that the prospective assassins are responsible for murdering other, undisclosed victims.

Wilkinson was sixty-five years old before he found out, through the Freedom of Information Act, that he was the target of intrusive, unwarranted FBI surveillance. Until recently, the fact that he had been the target of an assassination attempt had never been disclosed. Ironically, the life of Frank Wilkinson was evidently spared because he got fired and was rendered powerless. Had Wilkinson possessed the power to challenge Hoover and the forces that opposed the housing project for the poor, Wilkinson would have probably been found dead, and a footnote would have probably branded him the victim of suicide. Clearly, the fact that a simple man like Wilkinson could occupy eight FBI agents a day and could be the source of documentation which would take over ten years to produce at 36 pages per day, is absolutely astounding and difficult to comprehend.

The willingness to contemplate the murder of simple people like Wilkinson raises serious questions about other un-American targets. J. Edgar Hoover's zeal did not discriminate. In the last analysis, the effort to control un-Americans was predictable and transferable.

In the light of the sinister climate that J. Edgar Hoover produced, vague press reports like Scientist called by Red Probers Kills Himself and Scientist Kills Himself on Eve of Probe, reflect Czar Hoover's campaign to destroy the credibility of extraordinary Americans. The "suicide" reports relate to William Sherwood, a scientist targeted by the House on Un-American activities, and in retrospect, the man was obviously a victim of the typical witch-hunts that Hoover promoted.

In the minds of anti-communist hysterics, "the FBI was the primary line of defense against any breach in national security," and it was their responsibility to target and to destroy objective, intelligent critics like Sherwood, who was doing research in a Stanford University lab where he was found dead. William Sherwood was conveniently found dead the night before he was to testify before the House on Un-American activities, but it is J. Edgar Hoover the tyrant, who promoted the suggestion that the Un-American hearings terrified Communists to the point of suicide, and he bears the ultimate responsibility for such transparent murders.

In the final analysis, J. Edgar Hoover and his Mafia allies were violent, anti-communist hysterics who targeted, tormented and destroyed American citizens, not because they were criminals, but because they were arbitrarily branded un-American. Indeed, J. Edgar Hoover was the Director, not of the FBI, but of the Great American Inquisition.

With regard to the assassination of President John F. Kennedy, the Mafia needed assassins who, if caught, could not be tied directly to the American Mafia. Assassins were needed who were not known to American police, and finally, assassins who could be counted on not to talk.

The assassins had been flown from Marseilles to Mexico City. They were then driven to the US border at Brownsville, Texas. They crossed the border using Italian passports, and they were picked up on the American side by a representative of the Chicago Mafia, with whom they conversed in Italian. After being driven to Dallas, they were set up in a safehouse so as to not leave any hotel records. They spent several days photographing Dealey Plaza, and at night they studied the photographs and arranged a mathematical crossfire.

As for the location of the killers during the murder, two of the men were situated in buildings behind the President’s limousine. One man was stationed about 60 feet above the ground, while the other killer was “almost on the horizontal…you cannot understand the wounds unless you understand that one of the men was almost on the horizontal”.

The two buildings in question were the Texas School Book Depository and the Dal-Tex building. Witnesses saw men on the sixth floor of the Depository and on a lower floor of the Dal-Tex building.

Lucien Sarti was situated on the Grassy Knoll. Sarti had wanted to be located on the bridge above Elm Street, but discovered on the morning of the assassination that the bridge was guarded, forcing him to move onto “the little hill with the wooden fence”. Sarti took up a position behind this fence and fired one shot.

Sarti used an explosive bullet. He was the only one of the three gunman who used that kind of bullet, it is more powerful, causes more damage to the body, and once it makes its impact there are no traces left of it.

Four shots were fired:

Two of the shots were fired almost simultaneously. This description of the firing sequence is consistent with what the majority of witnesses in Dealey Plaza heard; most claimed to hear 3 or 4 shots. Examining the Zapruder film also suggests the shots were fired in this order.

The contract probably originated with Hoover/Garrison's ally, Carlos Marcello of New Orleans who placed it in Marseilles through his colleague Santo Trafficante, Jr. who had the closest relations with Antoine Guérini. Beyond that, it seems reasonable that Giancana of Chicago was involved because the assassins were met at the border by representatives of the Chicago Mafia. Moreover, the fact that the assassins moved out of the United States through the Montreal corridor, which was very closely linked to the New York Mafia, also suggests that Gambino may have been involved.”

Sauveur Pironti November 22, 1963: After being struck in the back of the neck from an almost horizontal position, the Zapruder film shows Kennedy clutching at his throat, just before Sarti fired the single fatal shot... President Kennedy was murdered because Johnson and Nixon opposed his plans.
Roger Bocognani

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